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This site was created some years ago as a source of information on the era of the English Civil Wars (or, as historians now prefer, the period of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms). The intention is to provide information about life, civilian as well as military, during the mid-seventeenth century and guidance on many aspects of re-enactment. Material is being added all the time so it's worth coming back to see what's new.

Inevitably, the opinions expressed on the site are not necessarily those of the Fairfax Battalia, its members or its officers.


The Fairfax Battalia is one of the leading English Civil War re-enactment groups. Members have a reputation for historical accuracy in everything they do at events and work hard to involve the visiting public. This website is intended to provide information relating to the English Civil Wars and to various aspects of re-enactment as conducted by the Fairfax Battalia.

You can search the content of this site by typing text into the search box on the left of the screen or by browsing titles of articles in the various sections listed below.

The information included here is generally from enthusiasts using secondary or tertiary sources and, with a few notable exceptions, has not been provided by academics or professional historians. Many of the people who have contributed material are extremely knowledgeable and have researched their subjects very thoroughly but the material you will find here should not be used as an authoritative source in the way that peer-reviewed material (such as books, papers or DNB articles) could.

Please also note that all of the material here remains the intellectual property of the individual authors. It may not be published or circulated without the written permission of the relevant author.

The content of the site is arranged by category shown below. The indented text is the title of each page.


 Main page and information About Fairfax Battalia  


Appearance:   Wigs and hair 
Calendars:    Dates and calendars
              Feast Days
Children:     Children
Clothing:     Black for clothing
              Hat honour and deference
              Hat service
              Recreating the Reality of Elizabethan Clothing 1
              Recreating the Reality of Elizabethan Clothing 2 
              Stockings in the mid-seventeenth century
Commerce:     Coins of the 17th century
              Income by Social Grouping
              Prices of accommodation, food and drink in 1625
              Tally sticks and the formation of the Bank of England
Communities:  Fladbury Parish accounts: damages claimed from Parliament
              Coventry during the civil wars
Construction: Teak in 17th century
Death:        Concepts of death in Early Modern England
              Life expectancy
Education:    Education
Fabric        Fustian
Food & drink  Chocolate advertisement
              Coffee in England in the seventeenth century
              Water or small beer
Health:       Average height
              Healers in the 17th century
              Health (William Vaughan’s Fifteen Directions to Preserve Health)
Leisure:      Playing cards
London:       London and the English Civil War
Marriage:     Betrothal ceremonies
Politics:     Levellers
Society:      Income by Social Grouping
              Population: calculations for London and the country
              Servants in the 1640s to 1650s
              Tournaments in the 17th century


Papists, Protestants and Puritans - a user's guide
Religion in the Civil Wars Part 1 The Religious Background to the Civil War
Religion in the Civil Wars Part 2 Some Tenets of Protestant Reformation
Religion in the Civil Wars Part 3 Religion and the Monarchy Prior to the Civil War
Religion in the Civil Wars Part 4 Religion and Parliament
Religion in the Civil Wars Part 5 The Levellers and the Army
Religion in the Civil Wars Part 6 Concepts in 17th century religion
Religion in the Civil Wars Part 7 Other 17th Century Religious Groups


 The Japanese and arquebuses
 Battle of Worcester
 Battles of the Civil Wars - locations and dates
 Brockt up in Flanderis Montrose's regular troops
 European Military Revolution - when, where, who?
 Sir Thomas Fairfax - who was he?
 Fairfax Tour of Destruction
 Martial arts in 17th century England
 Military Rank Structure
 Military store at Shrewsbury in August 1659
 Mortars, Mortar-bombs and Hand-grenades
 Muskets and their use During the English Civil Wars
 Nehemiah Wharton letters
 Nicholas Devereux - his life
 Oxford Foot - know your enemy - The Oxford Foot on 14 June 1645
 Receipt suggestions for 'cooking by file'
 Seige of Galway
 Sir Robert Overton - his life
 Worcestershire Clubmen


 Background: Fairfax Battalia background
             Dates and calendars
             Regnal Years
 Books:      Books
 Clothing:   Lacing and how not to do it
 Equipment:  Getting a Shot Gun Certificate
             European Firearms Pass Shot Gun Certificate
             Going abroad with a musket
             Musket Safety
 Etiquette:  Hat honour and deference
             Hat service
 Events:     Your first event
             Camping at an event
             Children at events
             Talking to the public
 Films:      The Musketeer - film review
 Drill:      Drill displays
             Musket drill
             Pike postures
 Research:   Beginner's guide to research
             Beginner's guide to Referencing
             Beginner's dictionary
             Origin of ye and the long s
             Roman numerals and how to interpret them
 Roles:      Choosing your role
 Safety:     Musket Safety


 Black Tom - book review
 Dealing in Death - book review
 Hobberdy Dick - book review
 Nathaniel's Nutmeg - book review
 National conflicts - book review
 The Adventurer who Unlocked Japan - book review